Autodesk Vault has been utilized by the Autodesk's Mechanical Manufacturing products for several years now (5 releases). The referenced webpage contains 5 white papers regarding it.
The 5 white papers are:
Practical Data Management
Data Management Case Studies
Justifying and Implementing Practical Data Management
Vault Remote Access: WAN versus LAN Performance
This should be a decent way to jump start our understanding of Autodesk Vault.